1. Starling roost: Aberystwyth, Brighton & Hove
On winter evenings thousands of starlings perform photogenic aerobatics above the piers in these coastal cities, before they land on the ironwork to roost. Unlike most starling roosts, viewers on the piers can look down on the birds jostling for position on the girders below.
2. English elm: Brighton & Hove
Full-size English elms are a scarce sight since Dutch elm disease in the 1960s. But Brighton offers a sanctuary to thousands of elms, including the ‘Preston Twins’ in Preston Park, said to be the oldest in Europe.
3. Purple hairstreak: Norwich, Newport and London
On the wing from June to August, this small yet exquisite species is potentially one of our most abundant butterflies yet is seldom seen due to its love for the canopy of oak trees. Urban green spaces suit it, with records from Mousehold Heath, Norwich; St Julian’s Park, Newport; and Wanstead Flats, Trent Park, Hampstead and Battersea in London.
4. Red grouse: Bradford
A short bus ride north of the city centre, on the outskirts of Shipley, lies Baildon Moor. This relatively small expanse of heather and rough grassland, managed by Bradford Metropolitan District Council, is home to Britain’s only urban grouse as well as nesting skylarks, snipe, curlew and lapwing.
5. ‘Fossorial’ water voles: Glasgow
In parts of Europe, water voles lead a mole-like existence far from water. In Britain, this ‘fossorial’ behaviour is thought to be confined to Scotland and is rare in urban areas. Meadows and verges of Glasgow’s Cardowan Bog near the M8 motorway provide an unlikely refuge for these fascinating burrowing rodents.
6. Fen raft spider: Swansea
Between Swansea and Neath, hemmed in by industry, housing estates and railway embankments, a former copper works is now a small wetland reserve called Red Jacket Fen. Together with nearby Pant-y-Sais Fen, this is a stronghold for the nationally rare fen raft spider. One of Britain’s largest arachnids, it thrives in the alkaline pools and ditches here.