All illustrations by Mike Langman
1. (above) Black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Gathers in tens of thousands at reservoirs and gravel pits, often with other gull species. Take a telescope.
2. Knot Calidris canuta
Forms dense packs on shoreline at high tide, often with smaller dunlin, appearing as a solid grey block.
3. Lapwing Vanellus vanellus
Roosts mainly on the ground, but in northern England has also taken to roosting on flat warehouse roofs.
4. Hen harrier Circus cyaneus
Roosts in rushy places on moors, at a few inland marshes and on saltmarsh, especially in eastern England.
5. Rook Corvus frugilegus
Roosts, sometimes in thousands, at traditional sites in copses. Pre-roost flocks often gather in nearby fields.
6. Raven Corvus corax
Forms noisy roosts, often on crags or in dense conifers. Pre-roost displays involve croaking and soaring.
7. Long-eared owl Asio otus
Roosts at traditional sites, often low down in thick scrub or small trees. Take great care to avoid disturbance.
8. Redwing Turdus iliacus
Roosts in trees, especially conifers, and thick scrub. Birds arrive quite high and drop suddenly into cover.
9. Greenfinch Carduelis chloris
Roosts up to several hundred strong gather in trees, often conifers such as Lawson’s and Leyland cypresses.
10. Linnet Carduelis cannabina
Roosts in prickly shrubs such as gorse or bramble; also in conifers. Pre-roost gatherings twitter as darkness falls.
11. Pied wagtail Motacilla alba
Roosts in warm, well-lit places, often on trees or buildings in towns. Listen for birds calling overhead en route.
12. Starling Sturnus vulgaris
Gathers in huge roosts at reedbeds, and on piers and buildings. Aerial pre-roost displays are spectacular.