All illustrations by Felicity Rose Cole
1 Willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus (above)
Immatures are much brighter than adults, with entirely yellow underparts and a greener wash to the upperparts.
2 Whitethroat Sylvia communis
Young are similar to adult females, but with brown not greyish heads and brighter chestnut wing panels.
3 Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla
Immatures are browner overall than adults, with pale chestnut caps like those of adult females.
4 Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus
Young of both sexes have orange tails; young males also have hints of a black hood and a white forehead.
5 Whinchat Saxicola rubetra
Young resemble adult females, but are paler and more speckled, often with some spots on the breast.
6 Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
Young are sandy above, not greyish as in adults, with paler eyestripes and less-defined cheek patches.
7 Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
Immatures are pale below and grey-brown above with white wing bars, much like adult females.
8 Ring ouzel Turdus torquatus
Young look ‘scaly’ but often have just a trace of the adult diffuse breast band, so resemble young blackbirds.
9 Yellow wagtail Motacilla flava
Young are more buff and grey than yellow, so can be confusingly pipit-like, but lack the streaky breasts of pipits.
10 Hobby Falco subbuteo
Immatures lack the red ‘trousers’ and undertail feathers of adults, and have buff-tinged underparts.
11 Common tern Sterna hirundo
Young lack the blood-red bills of summer adults, but beware: adults may also have darker bills in autumn.
12 Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea
Young have darker bills and shorter tails than adults; can be very similar to immature common terns.