“Garden ponds are vital for wildlife,” says Kathryn Walker of the Freshwater Habitats Trust. “They act as stepping-stones in areas that have lost other bodies of water in the landscape and can be particularly useful for species such as frogs and newts, providing links within an increasingly fragmented habitat.”
There are thought to be approximately 478,000 ponds in the British countryside, but many of them are threatened by pollution, drainage and development. Nevertheless, British gardeners have added an estimated two to three million garden ponds, which together provide significant habitat.
Creating a wildlife pond only takes a weekend, yet can deliver results very quickly. “Build a pond, fill it with rainwater and within a few hours wildlife in the form of flying insects will start arriving,” says Kathryn. “Plant it with native plants found close to home to make sure you’re providing the best natural habitat for local species, and within a year or two you’ll have an established wildlife pond. And having a pond will also bring more birds, mammals and invertebrates to your garden.”
All illustrations by Stuart Jackson Carter
You Will Need
- Pond liner
- Pond plants
- Turf or stones
- Sand or gravel to line
Pick a slightly shaded area of the garden away from overhanging trees. Mark an outline and then dig no deeper than 30cm. Include sloping edges and flat shelves for planting.
Use a spirit level resting on a plank to make sure that both sides of the pond are level. This means that once the pool is full, all of the liner will be submerged and protected from the sun.
Remove sharp stones and create a protective underlay using old carpets, towels or sand. Cut the liner to size, allowing plenty of room for depth. Rubber liners are tough and flexible.
Cover the topside of the liner with turf or stones. Add a layer of clean sand or gravel in which plants can take root and fill it using rainwater from a water butt.
Marginal and floating-leaved plants are best added as small-rooted plants pushed into the sediment. Submerged plants need good water quality.
Planting your pond – six top tips
1. Offering a mix of long grass, log piles and rocks will encourage frogs to stay all year and provide stopping-off points for dispersing froglets. Slabs or strips of timber will shelter newts and frogs.
2. Most creatures and plants live in the shallow water at the edges, so create a pond that is 25–30cm deep with gently sloping edges to provide the best habitat for amphibians and invertebrates.
3. Think like a pond creature. These animals want dense vegetation that offers a place to hide and encourages other creatures that are a vital food source.
4. Allow grasses and plants to trail over the edge of the pond. This will provide great habitat for water beetles.
5. Garden centres stock native water plants. Look for the ‘Be Plant Wise’ logo, which indicates that they have been sourced responsibly.
6. Get species that already grow in the area, so try freshwater sources within 30km of your home (make sure you ask the landowner’s permission if necessary). You can let plants populate naturally, but this process can take a few years.